A beginner's guide to Forth by David Johns

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In general, this transition has an offset ∆ν from the observer mw frequency. In a time t after the π/2 pulse, it thus acquires a phase ∆νt. At this time, a π pulse is applied on the pump frequency. This pulse flips the pumped spin I from its α to its β state (Fig. 1), thus transferring the coherence to the other transition of spin S (Fig. 4b) and changing the resonance frequency of spin S by Ϫd. Here, d is the spin–spin coupling including dipole–dipole and exchange contributions. In the remaining time τϪt before the second pulse at the observer frequency, the coherence acquires a phase (∆νϪd)(τϪt).

On a given spectrometer and for a given type of samples, such as nitroxide spin labels, λ can be determined by calibration with a sample of known concentration cI. Such a signal contribution from a homogeneous distribution may be advantageous, as it allows for precise determination of particle concentrations and for the detection of subtle deviations from a homogeneous distribution by a deviation of B(t) from an exponential decay. In scattering, such deviations contribute only a very broad background to I(q) that is easily missed.

R. Transition Ion Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Clarendon: Oxford, UK, 1990. 6. : New York, 1990. 7. E. : New York, 1994. 8. ; Jeschke, G. Principles of Pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, Clarendon: Oxford, UK, 2001. 9. M. ; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 1996; Vol. 15, pp. 115–152. 10. Goldfarb, D. ; Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, 1996; Vol. 15, pp. 186–243. 11. Smirnov, A. 18, pp. 109–136. 12. F. ESR Spectroscopy in Polymer Research, Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1977. 13. The Effects of Radiation on High-Technology Polymers.

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