By Richard J. Borg and G. J. Dienes (Auth.)
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Solid State Diffusion
Or, perhaps in more familiar language, when the number of available energy states does not greatly exceed the number already occupied, Boltzman or classical statistics are invalid. 57) which is the same result as would be obtained from classical thermody- Thermodynamics of Simple Defects 49 namics with the factor ζ effectively a correction to the concentration. 55) is not only applicable to vacancy impurity complexes, but can also b e used for vacancy-dislocation complexes; with minor varia tions in derivation, the equation also emerges to describe segregation of impurities at grain boundaries as well as absorption of gases on surfaces.
5 Angular correlation apparatus for 2 γ annihilation radiation. SCA stands for single channel analyzer, which filters out and discards pulses not derived from the annihilation events. 6 T h e vector diagram of the m o m e n t u m conservation in the 2 γ annihilation process. T h e m o m e n t u m of the annihilating pair is denoted by P, subscripts L and Τ refer to longitudinal a n d transverse components, respectively. The second method, Doppler broadening, or narrowing in the case of defects, relies on a diminution in the momentum dispersion of the annihila tion radiation.
A. Quenching T h e most common technique applied to metals for the measurement of vacancy concentrations is to quickly quench a wire made from the material of interest from a succession of temperatures and measure the change in electrical resistance at liquid He temperature, which is proportional to the change in vacancy concentration, which in turn is a function of the initial annealing temperature. Fig. 3 is a schematic drawing of the essential features of an apparatus suitable for making such measurements.