By Otfried Höffe
This can be an English translation of Otfried Hoffe's examine, initially in German, offering the lifestyles and works of Aristotle, revealing him as a contemporary, forward-thinking thinker. matters of ethics, politics, metaphysics, psychology, biology and rhetoric are all mentioned and Aristotle is additionally in comparison to more than a few different philosophers, in particular these of German beginning. Hoffe has been a number one contributor to debates on ethical, criminal, political and philosophical topics for nearly thirty years.
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II. PRACTICAL Ethics Cosmology Meteorology Psychology1 Secondarily, psychology belongs partly to mathematics, partly to first philosophy. Botany will be practised only by Theophrastus. Rhetoric belongs also to II, but because of its neutral value it belongs chiefly to III. Not practised by Aristotle. This is present only as theory in Aristotle. Politics Zoology Rhetoric3 (Botany)2 Crafts4 Poetry5 Medicine etc. 18 ARISTOTLE Directed toward the eternal, unalterable structures of nature and cognition, the three theoretical sciences strive for knowledge for its own sake: (1) Mathematics consists of pure mathematics, that is, arithmetic and geometry, and applied mathematics, namely astronomy, mechanics, navigation, optics, and harmony.
I 1, 981b5–10). Aristotle opposes the devaluation of pre-scientfic knowledge by according a merely dominant meaning to the two highest stages. They do not necessarily include preceding knowledge, as with the absorption model decribed above; the lower stages are not contained within the higher ones in the Hegelian sense. As experience shows, those who know about the general do not necessarily know all the particulars contained in it. A scientist can be lacking in knowledge of the particular; for example, a person who has the necessary scientific knowledge as well as diagnostic and therapeutic skills, is not eo ipso an experienced doctor (cf.
Those who then search for causes and reasons prove by that very action their pleasure in knowledge of a higher degree. In both cases of simple, innocent desire to know and of its reflected, higherlevel variant, one investigates the world chôris tês chreias (Metaph. I 1, 980a22), or mê pros chrêsin (981b19 f; cf. I 2, 982b21). Free of all needs or necessities, one searches for knowledge for itself. Nevertheless, it is always possible to consider usability, and then there are two options within each stage of knowledge, knowledge for its own sake and knowledge for a purpose.