Beyond Pleasure and Pain: How Motivation Works by E. Tory Higgins

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By E. Tory Higgins

How does motivation paintings? The vintage solution is that folks are stimulated to strategy excitement and stay away from discomfort, that they're encouraged through "carrots and sticks." yet to appreciate human motivation, it will be significant to head past excitement and ache. What humans wish is to be powerful of their lifestyles targets, and there are 3 specific ways in which humans are looking to be powerful. they wish to be potent in having wanted effects (value), which include having excitement yet isn't really restricted to excitement. they need to be potent in coping with what occurs (control) and in setting up what is actual (truth), no matter if the method of dealing with what occurs or developing what is actual is painful. those 3 detailed methods of desirous to be powerful transcend simply short of excitement, yet there's much more to the tale of ways motivation works. those methods of desirous to be powerful don't functionality in isolation. fairly, they interact. certainly, the ways in which worth, fact, and regulate interact is the imperative tale of motivation. by way of knowing how motivation works as a firm of worth, fact, and keep an eye on causes, we will be able to re-think simple motivational matters, comparable to the character of character and tradition, how the reasons of others will be controlled successfully, and what's "the strong life."

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That is, because maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain is so obviously basic to human motivation, it is “self-evident” that humans have an “unalienable right” to do so through their pursuit of happiness. Support for “Maximizing Pleasure” Being What People Really Want The obvious importance to human motivation of maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain has been recognized for centuries, going back (at least) to Greek discussions of the hedonic principle. 37 For Bentham, even the value or utility of something was based on its relation to maximizing pleasure.

The facts of evolution do not compel us to adopt this view, for motility and responsiveness to the environment are present way down to the bottom of the scale of animal life. There is no more reason for saying that the muscles exist for the purpose of obtaining food than for saying that food is needed to supply energy for the muscles . . What we find in the young animal is activity directed toward the environment, along with the organic needs, and with no sign that one is more primitive and unlearned than the other.

This is evident in the following quote from his 1940 book, Psychology: To some thinkers on these matters it appears self-evident that dealing with the environment occurs only in the service of the organic needs for food, etc. They say that the muscles and sense organs have evolved simply as tools for the better securing of food and other organic necessities, and for reproducing the race. Only the organic needs, on this view, are entitled to rank as primary drives; all activity dealing with the environment is secondary.

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