Biophysical Labeling Methods in Molecular Biology by Gertz I. Likhtenshtein

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By Gertz I. Likhtenshtein

This monograph describes the theoretical bases and experimental necessities for ways resembling spin fluorescence, triplet, Mössbauer, photochromic and electron-density labeling, together with the approaches used to procure in particular changed proteins, enzymes, biomembranes, nucleic acids, and different organic molecules. the basics of the actual concept in the back of every one strategy is defined and info are given of the way to interpret the experimental info acquired. specified sections take care of severe stories of modern facts at the constitution, molecular dynamics and conformational transitions of organic molecules. every one part concludes with a dialogue of the consequences received from those concepts in reference to a variety of difficulties of enzyme catalysis, electron move, molecular biophysics and molecular biology. The makes use of that labeling thoughts might be positioned to for the research of complete cells and tissues also are mentioned.

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According to quantum mechanics, the exchange interaction between pairs of spins leads to energy splitting, with the formation of two states: (1) a singlet state with antiparallel disposition of spins and (2) a triplet state with parallel disposition. The energy gap between the states is equal to 2J, where J is an exchange integral. 3) The value of the exchange integral J is quantitatively characterized by the degree of overlap of the electron orbitals with unpaired electrons. The 48 Biophysical labeling methods value J « 1 0 1 5 s " 1 a t a distance of a chemical-bond length decreases exponentially with increasing distance between the spins.

If the distribution of the electric oscillation frequencies partially overlaps the MW resonance frequency, the radical magnetization energy will be transferred to the energy of the phonon oscillations through the spin-orbital interaction. In the case of a one-quantum direct transfer, the spin-lattice relaxation rate is proportional to the temperature: 1/T l e ~ T. 27) where n — 9 for three-dimensional Kramer transfer and n = 1 for nonKramer transfer. Rotational vibrations of radicals with anisotropy of the g-factor and hyperfine splitting A can also accelerate the spin-lattice relaxation (Lebedev & Muromtsev 1972).

15). Another independent approach to discrimination between the rotational models is an analysis of correlation between the values of the Az shift and the line width induced by temperature and viscosity changes (Antsiferova & Lyubashevskaya 1986; Antsiferova et al. 1989a). , fast rotation of the nitroxide fragment within a cone, only the Az shift is theoretically expected. According to the Freed model of anisotropic slow rotation, changes in both the Az shift and broadening of the spectral line parallel each other (Freed 1976).

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