Bound carbohydrates in nature by Leonard Warren

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By Leonard Warren

Certain carbohydrates are an immense and interesting subject in biochemical and melanoma examine. in accordance with a sequence of invited lectures, this publication specializes in the targeted function that certain carbohydrates play in nature and replicate the author's exclusive occupation in biochemical study. another issues lined are the homes of membrane glycoproteins, fascinated with the resistance of cells to medicines, and the metabolism of sugars and sialic acids, either one of which shape a pivotal position within the author's experiences. The e-book chronicles just a few of the large advances which were made in biochemistry during the last few a long time.

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Thus, the level of sialyl transferase(s) may determine the size of the bound sugar groups. In general, every intermediate structure formed may be competed for by more than one enzyme. Therefore, its subsequent history may depend on its concentration and location within the cell, the amounts of each of the competing enzymes and their kinetic characteristics (pH optimum, the shape of the pH curve, Km value, inorganic ion requirements), their response to hormones, and conditions within the cell. The levels of nucleotides in the cell could be important.

Sialic acids are usually at the terminal position of sugar chains, where they are highly exposed and functionally important. Linkage is glycosidic (ketosidic), between the reducing position of the sialic acid at C-2 and an hydroxyl group of D-galactose, Af-acetylglucosamine, Af-acetylgalactosamine or another sialic acid residue. In the last case, the C-2 of one sialic acid molecule is bound to a hydroxyl group at C-8 on a second sialic acid residue. Polysialic acids with this linkage are found in glycolipids, adhesive glycoproteins of neural tissue and in polymers produced by certain strains of E.

These have carbohydrate and lipid structures that, in some instances, change in a very specific, programed manner during embryonic development. They are carriers of blood group and tumor antigens and are receptors or can modulate receptor activity at the cell surface. They are probably an important determinant of the character of the membrane itself (charge, permeability). When cells or whole fish embryos (Medaka) are grown in the presence of PDMP (l-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-lpropanol), a structural analog of ceramide and an inhibitor of glycosylceramide synthetase, glycolipid synthesis is sharply curtailed, metabolic labeling with radioactive sugars is reduced by over 75%, and the glycolipid content and several tissue-specific Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press, 2010 Cambridge Books Online © Cambridge University Press, 2012 20 Carbohydrates of glycoproteins glycolipid antigens are dramatically reduced.

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