Breast MRI in Practice by R. Warren, Alan Coulthard

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By R. Warren, Alan Coulthard

Advancements in MRI and software program have made breast checks on hand in new methods for lots of extra clients. while, breast MRI is evolving from a examine instrument to a clinically beneficial imaging modality. The impetus for additional scientific improvement is probably going to cross from MRI researchers to "breast" radiologists. a lot of those radiologists could be skilled in breast imaging yet now not inevitably MRI. With this in brain, Breast MRI in perform presents a finished and functional consultant to imaging the breast with MRI. it really is crucial for oncologists, radiologists and scientific scholars in these fields.

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The advantage is that this method gives rise to an increase in the SNR. Quadrature coils can also reduce the amount of RF power transferred to the patient by not transmitting the ineffective polarization. They also have a more homogeneous B1 field distribution. BREAST COILS Dedicated bilateral breast surface coils are used for the vast majority of breast examinations. These allow imaging of both breasts and the chest wall. The patient lies prone, thus minimizing respiratory motion artefacts. Coils for imaging of the axilla for lymph node evaluation are also available.

The signal loss because of diffusion parallels that due to the T2 effect. The effectiveness of pulsed gradients for sensitizing a sequence to small diffusive motions is described by a gradient ‘b-factor’, measured in units of seconds per millimetre squared (s/mm2). Diffusionweighted images may be generated using sequences incorporating diffusion gradients: the larger the b factor, the greater the attenuation of signal from diffusing protons. A quantitative measure of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), requires the acquisition of a series of images with different b factors.

The gradient coils, located within the magnet, give rise to a weak spatially-varying magnetic field, which, when superimposed on the main field, allows for slice selection, phase-encoding and frequency-encoding. The radiofrequency (RF) field, B1, oscillates at the Larmor fre- quency and is generated by an RF source called the transmitter. The RF coils are used to excite (RF transmitter coil) and detect (RF receiver coil) the proton resonance. The same RF coils may be used for both transmission and reception.

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