Building Physics: Lighting. Seeing in the Artificial by W. R. Stevens

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By W. R. Stevens

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Almost as important as the illuminance level is the standard of decoration and of cleanliness. Many other attempts have been made to put a scientific basis beneath the illuminance values in common use or recommended. A. ) studied heart-rate, blink-rate and other physical phenomena; several workers have deduced values from data on contrastsensitivity of the eye. 6 The fact is that our demand for light rises with our standard of living. Light has to be paid for (even daylight) and what we believe to be worth paying for is conditioned by the money we have and the other items clamouring for a share of it.

Extended lines of fluorescent tubes in diffusers or reflectors, the sector flux J — 1 · 5 J0, J0 being the intensity per unit length of lamp in the direction of the point of measurement. ) The illuminance on a surface parallel to the source and facing it will now be E = J/d where d = distance to nearest point of source. LIGHT: ITS BEHAVIOUR AND HOW IT IS MEASURED 45 If the surface is tilted from this angle by an amount a, the illuminance is given by r E = - J COS a d Hence, the illuminance on a horizontal surface below a horizontal run of tubularfluorescentfittingsis £ = _ * - / where h = vertical height offittingsabove surface, / = horizontal offset of point from vertical to fittings.

If the illuminance of the surface is E, the flux falling on area dA is Ed A, The flux leaving this area is pEdA and the flux per unit area is pE. If this flux is all concentrated in a solid angle ω the intensity is ρΕ/ω per unit area and this is the luminance. g. an electric lamp) particularly where a specific direction of view is involved. There is, however, another useful way of considering luminance of a surface and this is by comparing it with the luminance of a perfect diffuser. Consider a flat luminous surface viewed at an angle Θ to the normal.

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