CAFE: An Industrial Strength Algebraic Formal Method by K. Futatsugi

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By K. Futatsugi

This e-book includes chosen papers at the language, purposes, and environments of CafeOBJ, that is a state-of -the-art algebraic specification language. The authors are audio system at a workshop held in 1998 to commemorate a wide industrial/academic undertaking devoted to CafeOBJ. The undertaking concerned greater than forty humans from greater than 10 businesses, of which 6 are commercial. The workshop attracted approximately 30 talks and greater than 70 attendees.

The papers within the publication although, are both seriously revised types provided on the workshop, to mirror fresh developments or examine; or thoroughly new ones, written specifically for this publication. during this regard, the publication isn't a traditional postpublication after a workshop. additionally, even though it is a compendium of papers which are on the topic of CafeOBJ, the ebook isn't really a handbook, reference, or educational of CafeOBJ. most likely the simplest description is that it's a number of papers that examine the way to use, or to make it effortless to take advantage of, CafeOBJ. Reflecting the various nature of the undertaking and its contributors (most of the authors are members to the project), the papers, prepare, supply a finished photo from this methodological perspective.

a few papers care for a number of complicated features of the language, resembling rewriting common sense and behavioural common sense. For rewriting good judgment, a number of major functions have been suggested. particularly, UML, now thought of de facto general language for modelling structures, is the topic of 1 paper. For behavioural common sense, new methodological instructions are provided. a few papers shed new mild on a extra conventional paradigm within the language; order-sorted equational necessities. One paper, particularly, take care of the way to affiliate CafeOBJ with object-oriented programming. the opposite papers take care of environments for writing and vertifying requisites written in CafeOBJ. Underlying these papers are significant concerns: consumer interfaces for manipulating requirements, and systematic helps for proofs. the entire environments defined within the papers imagine and help allotted computing, and de facto normal community applied sciences, resembling WWW and http, are integrated.

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The point is: A register, one of the key components in a processor, is a hardware mechanism that uses a set of latches to store a digital value. 15 Flip-Flops And Transition Diagrams A flip-flop is another circuit in which the output depends on previous inputs as well as the current input. There are various forms. One form acts exactly like the power switch on a computer: the first time its input becomes 1, the flip-flop turns the output on, and the second time the input becomes 1, the flip-flop turns the output off.

However, a set of flip-flops can be connected in series to form a binary counter that accumulates a numeric total. Like a flip-flop, a counter has a single input. Unlike a flip-flop, however, a counter has multiple outputs. The outputs count how many input pulses have been detected by giving a numerical total in binary†. We think of the outputs as starting at zero and adding one each time the input transitions from 0 to 1. Thus, a counter that has three output lines can accumulate a total between 0 and 7.

Therefore, computers are designed for failure rates of much less than one in a billion. 11 12 Fundamentals Of Digital Logic Chap. 2 How can high reliability and high speed be achieved? One of the earliest computational devices, known as an abacus, relied on humans to move beads to keep track of sums. By the early twentieth century, mechanical gears and levers were being used to produce cash registers and adding machines. By the 1940s, early electronic computers were being constructed from vacuum tubes.

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