Carbon-Energy Taxation: Lessons from Europe by Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins

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By Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins

Whilst taxes are brought on carbon and effort, and the profit is used to minimize different taxes, will a favorable impression be accomplished either for the surroundings and for the economic system? In 1990 Finland was once the 1st nation to introduce a tax on CO2. Later, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Slovenia, Germany and the united kingdom swimsuit with tax reforms that shifted taxation from labour to carbon and effort. through the years, CO[{2} and effort taxes have steadily been raised, in order that in Europe taxes of greater than 25 billion Euros a yr were shifted. This e-book examines carbon-energy taxation intimately and appears at tax moving programmes for decreasing different taxes. It bargains broad research at the foundation of ancient info and seeks to respond to very important questions for policy-making, resembling: What used to be the effect of tax moving for fiscal functionality and competitiveness? through how a lot have been emissions of CO[{2} diminished? might energy-intensive industries minimize extra down on their gasoline call for or did they unfastened industry stocks? To what volume used to be there "leakage" from Europe, in order that creation and CO[{2} emissions have been shifted to different international locations or areas with out CO[{2} -abatement coverage? using certain and unique information, together with sector-specific power costs and taxes, in addition to using complicated statistical suggestions, equivalent to co-integration research and panel-regression recommendations besides the time-series anticipated macro-economic version E3ME, make this a really complete quantity. at the foundation of the teachings discovered in Europe, this quantity shows how carbon-energy taxation may perhaps usefully be mixed with emissions buying and selling, and discusses implications for destiny overseas weather coverage, together with how the IPCC options for a steady escalation in carbon fee can be finished whereas combating carbon leakage.

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Competitiveness and external trade performance of the French manufacturing industry’. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 133/1: 103–33. , and Papagni, E. 1993. ‘The dynamics of international competitiveness’. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 129/3: 451–71. Andersen, M. S. 1999. ‘Governance by green taxes: implementing clean water policies in Europe’. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 2/1: 39–63. 20 Carbon-Energy Taxation and Competitiveness Lerche, D. , and Smith, C. 2005. ‘Effectiveness of urban wastewater policies’.

There is disagreement on whether it makes sense to talk about ‘national competitiveness’ in the way that Porter does. Some authors argue that ‘competitiveness’ applies to firms rather than to countries (cf. the UK’s 11 Pricing of Carbon in Europe Department of Trade and Industry, 1998, 2 and a much-quoted essay by Krugman, 1994). Thompson (1998) argues that the competitiveness of a country rests on the competitiveness of individual firms, which may not be evenly distributed. One could have a ‘leopard spot’ economy, with islands of strongly competitive sectors or firms among others which are not.

The lessons learnt from the environmental tax reforms in Europe, and the extent to which competitiveness and climate policy can be realigned, are summarized with a view to their potential relevance for future policies considered in Europe as well as by other major emitters. References Agenor, P. R. 1997. ‘Competitiveness and external trade performance of the French manufacturing industry’. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 133/1: 103–33. , and Papagni, E. 1993. ‘The dynamics of international competitiveness’.

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