Cardiac Gap Junctions: Physiology, Regulation, by S. Dhein

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By S. Dhein

An important verbal exchange mechanism among cardiac cells is electric transmission through low resistance pathways, the so-called hole junction channels. This e-book offers a complete assessment of what's identified approximately cardiac hole junctions. An advent into many of the elements of activation propagation and coupling within the center is by means of a close description of the constitution and variety of hole junctions, together with amino acid sequences and species variability. next chapters speak about their distribution, body structure and capabilities and the legislation of expression. the writer then is going directly to positioned those simple findings right into a scientific context - the adjustments of hole junction distribution during cardiac disorder and their implications. one other bankruptcy provides pharmacological ways to the modulation of hole junction channel conductivity and descriptions attainable healing innovations. the ultimate a part of the publication describes the equipment of research together with double telephone voltage clamp, immunohistochemistry, isolation approaches for hole junctions and dye coupling assays.

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1995]. The AV node is a highly specialized structure of the conduction system, which is designed for delayed conduction (with a rate-dependent delay) of the action potentials from the atrium to the ventricles. Thus, it as been hypothesized that in the AV node other gap junction proteins may occur than in the ventricular myocardium. , 1991]. In accordance with this finding, Oosthoek et al. [1993a] could not detect Cx43 expression in human or bovine AV-nodal tissues. However, besides Cx40 Davis 3 Distribution of Gap Junctions in the Heart 29 et al.

1995]. Besides Cx43, Cx40 was also found. The distribution of Cx43 in a coronary vessel and a schematic diagram of the distribution of various connexins in the vessel wall are shown in figures 11 and 12, respectively. , 1993]. Thus, gap junction formation and Cx43 expression may depend on the phenotype of smooth muscle cells. This may also account for the differences observed by different investigators. , 1996] with a reduced Cx43 density as compared to smooth muscle cells. 3 Distribution of Gap Junctions in the Heart 31 Fig.

2 Structure and Diversity of Gap Junction Channels 24 3 ........................... Distribution of Gap Junctions in the Heart In the first part of this chapter the distribution of gap junctions within a cell is discussed. In the second part the connexin pattern in the heart is described, and in the third part the expression of various connexins in the vasculature is outlined. Heart muscle fibers are coupled by gap junctions. These intercellular channels provide the exchange of small molecules (=1,000 D), like second messengers, between the cells and they allow electrical coupling.

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