Chemistry of Bioconjugates: Synthesis, Characterization, and by Ravin Narain

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By Ravin Narain

Explores bioconjugate homes and purposes of polymers, dendrimers, lipids, nanoparticles, and nanotubes

Bioconjugation has enabled breakthroughs throughout many components of and biomedicine. With its emphasis on synthesis, homes and functions, this booklet permits readers to appreciate the relationship among chemistry and the organic software of bioconjugated fabrics. Its particular descriptions of tools make sure that researchers to manufacture and take complete good thing about bioconjugates for a large variety of functions. in addition, the e-book units the basis for the improvement of recent purposes, together with assays, imaging, biosensors, drug supply, and diagnostics.

Chemistry of Bioconjugates beneficial properties contributions from a global group of prime specialists and pioneers within the box. those contributions mirror the authors' firsthand laboratory adventure in addition to an intensive overview of the present literature. The book's six sections examine:

General equipment of bioconjugation
Polymer bioconjugates

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Additional info for Chemistry of Bioconjugates: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biomedical Applications

Sample text

The second biomolecule is then added and allowed to react with the previously activated biomolecule. A common problem in the two-step protocol is that the activated biomolecule intermediate can hydrolyze and degrade rapidly prior to the cross-linking step. Despite these issues, homobifunctional cross-linkers continue to be widely used as they do afford effective bioconjugates. Given the vast number of homobifunctional cross-linkers available, the following tables arrange them with respect to their reactivity toward amino groups, thiols, and other important functional groups.

14 the conjugate. The length of the spacer varies and could be short or long depending on the criteria of the experimental design. In some cases, the aromatic ring carries a hydroxyl group, which acts as an activating group (ortho- or paradirectors) toward electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. For example, iodination with radiolabeled-iodination reagents is a common reaction in order to facilitate the detection and/or purification of interacting proteins. Some of the photoreactive cross-linkers have a disulfide linkage, which render them cleavable under reducing conditions.

8). DPDPB reacts with thiols to form disulfide linkages [205, 206]. DPDPD is water insoluble and has to be dissolved in an organic solvent (25 mM DPDPB in DMSO) prior addition to reaction mixture. The disulfide linkage is cleavable with reducing agents. Haloacetamide cross-linkers react with thiols at physiological pH resulting in stable thioether linkages [196]. 5 afford thioether bonds and hydroxyl groups [207]. Bisepoxides can also react with nucleophilic amines. Homobifunctional cross-linking reagents reactive toward carbonyl groups (aldehydes or ketones) are mainly derivatives of hydrazides.

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