By Lee Ann Remington OD MS
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Additional info for Clinical Anatomy and Physiology of the Visual System, Third Edition
33,145 SCLERAL COLOR The anterior sclera is visible through the conjunctiva and, if healthy, is white but may appear colored as a result of age or disease. In the newborn, the sclera has a bluish tint because it is almost transparent and the underlying vascular uvea shows through. The sclera also may appear blue in connective tissue diseases that cause scleral thinning. The sclera might appear yellow in the presence of fatty deposits, which can occur with age. Likewise, the sclera may appear yellow in liver disease because of the buildup of metabolic wastes.
K+ movement out of the cell down its concentration gradient through channels in the basal membrane is opposed by the cotransporter and the 24 Clinical Anatomy of the Visual System Tear Film Zonula occludens Cl– Aquaporin Na+ 2K+ 3Na+ Na+ K+ 2Cl– K+ Aquaporin Stroma FIGURE 2-17 Diagram depicting ion and water movement through corneal epithelial cells. Although the corneal epithelium is several cell layers think, it is represented as a single layer because of the gap junctions joining cells, they act as a syncytium.
167 The palisades of Vogt are the “niche” for limbal stem cells. The undulations of the epithelium between the palisades provides increased surface area for a large number of cells. The limbal epithelial crypts are located mainly superiorly and inferiorly and thus are protected by the eyelids. 131 Clinical Comment: Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency IN LIMBAL STEM CELL DEFICIENCY the limbus is nonfunctioning, stem cell loss occurs, and conjunctival tissue can invade the cornea, leading to neovascularization and corneal opacity.