By P. L. Knight, L. Allen
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This experiment was performed by Clauser in 1974 (Reprinted Paper 8) who found no evidence that photons can be split, in clear contradiction with semi-classical theory. Such disagreements between semi-classical and quantum theories of coherence are rare: in Chapter 6 we discuss them further. 1 INTERACTION OF AN ATOM WITH A RADIATION FIELD In this Chapter we review the application of quantum mechanical perturbation theory to the absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation by atoms. g. Merzbacher 1961, Matthews 1974).
The fringe contrast is determined by the amagnitude of | G ^ (xyt X 2 ) | . The r e contrast is high if the fields at jj and £ 2 coherent but is limited by the requirement that I(r,t) be positive, which implies (Glauber 1965) G ( 1 ) ( x 1; x 1) G ( 1 ) ( x 2; x 2) > | G ( 1) (X^ X 2 ) | 2 . 38) is taken, and occurs when the radiation at x^ and X 2 is coherent. 39) for all (xp X 2 ) , then the radiation is said to be fully first order coherent at all points. Glauber has shown that a sufficient condition for maximum fringe contrast is that the first order coherence function factorizes G ( 1 ) ( x i; x 2) = £ * ( x x) £ ( x 2) .
An example is light from a spectral lamp, where there is no phase relationship between the different frequency components of the light. | . If I(u)) is so broad-band that it varies slowly compared with (sin 2At/2)/A 2, it may be replaced by its resonant peak value I(o)fi) and taken outside the integral. 32) for the absorption of broad-band light. 1) is due to the spread of driving frequencies and the incoherence of the incident radiation. No such dephasing is present when the atom is driven by a coherent field and time-independent transition rates will not necessarily be appropriate.