Content-Addressable Memories by Teuvo Kohonen

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By Teuvo Kohonen

As a result of continuous development within the large-scale integration of semiconductor circuits, parallel computing rules can already be met in reasonably cheap sys­ tems: various examples exist in picture processing, for which exact difficult­ ware is implementable with fairly modest assets even through nonprofessional designers. ideas of content material addressing, if completely understood, can thereby be utilized successfully utilizing common parts. however, mass garage in response to associative rules nonetheless exists basically within the lengthy­ time period plans of laptop technologists. this example is a bit stressed via the truth that sure expectancies are held for the improvement of latest garage media similar to optical thoughts and "spin glasses" (metal alloys with low-density magnetic impurities). Their applied sciences, in spite of the fact that, won't ripen till after "fifth new release" desktops were equipped. it sounds as if software program tools for content material addressing, in particular these according to hash coding rules, are nonetheless conserving their place firmly, and some thoughts were constructed lately. As they wish no distinct undefined, one may well count on that they are going to unfold to a large circle of clients. This monograph relies on an in depth literature survey, so much of which was once released within the First variation. i've got additional Chap. ?, which includes a assessment of newer paintings. This up to date publication now has references to over 1200 unique guides. within the modifying of the recent fabric, I obtained worthwhile support from Anneli HeimbUrger, M. Sc. , and Mrs. Leila Koivisto.

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It will further be emphasized below that it is advantageous to have the number of characters in the alphabet be a prime number; this number occurs as a radix in the numerical conversion. Assume now that for all different characters i in the alphabet, numerical values di E {O,1,2, ... ,w-l} are assigned in some order whereby a string of characters, written as k = dNdN_l ... dldO' may be considered as the representation of an integer in the base of w. 1 ) v For instance, for the English alphabet, one may choose A = 0, B = I, Z = 25.

But corresponding to every item there exists a state variable y(i) which is supposed to average over a great number of realizations of x(i). Consider, for simplicity, the occurrences of x(i) as discrete items x~i). 19 ) wbere f can attain many possible forms; the simplest of them is a weighted sum of y~i) and x~i) whereby a moving arithmetic average is formed over the sequence of {X~i)}. In a more complex case the recursion may also involve scale transformations. y~l)) is maximum. will be picked up and recalled.

The two external inputs A and B are assumed to have specialized roles in the information process, although the CAM makes no difference between them. A sequence of inputs {A(t)} is assumed to comprise the centraL temporaL pattern, whereas B assumes the role of background and is stationary. For different A-sequences, the prevailing background B shall be different; this makes it possible to distinguish between different sequences in spite of the same A(t) patterns occurring in them. One further specification shall be made: for the encoding of a temporal process in the CAM, it will be necessary to generate an output C(t) and a feedback pattern D(t) during the writing of each triple.

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