Language and Logic in the Post-Medieval Period by E.J. Ashworth

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By E.J. Ashworth

Keckermann remarked of the 16th century, "never from the commence­ ning of the realm was once there a interval so partial to common sense, or within which extra books on good judgment have been produced and stories oflogic flourished extra abun­ dantly than the period-in which we are living. " 1 yet regardless of the good great quantity of books to which he refers, and regardless of the dominant place occupied through common sense within the academic procedure of the 15th, 16th and 7­ teenth centuries, little or no paintings has been performed at the good judgment of the submit­ medieval interval. the single whole research is that of Risse, whose account, whereas traditionally exhaustive, can pay little consciousness to the particular logical 2 doctrines mentioned. differently, one could tum to Vasoli for a research of humanism, to Munoz Delgado for scholastic common sense in Spain, and to Gilbert and Randall for clinical procedure, yet this nonetheless leaves massive components untouched. during this publication i can't desire to treatment the entire deficiencies of earlier experiences, for to survey the literature by myself might take a lifetime. consequently i've got constrained myself in a variety of methods. within the first position, I con­ centrate purely on these concerns that are of specific curiosity to me, particularly theories of that means and reference, and formal logic.

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The set text in Cambridge for some while was written by John Seton (d. 1567), a Cambridge man who died in exile as a Roman Catholic priest, as did another Cambridge man, John Sanderson (d. 1602). At Oxford, the authors read by John Locke's students included Du Trieu, Burgersdijck, Robert Sanderson, Zabarella, and other late sixteenth or seventeenth century figures, both English and foreign. 59 Direct acquaintance with Aristotle was probably minimal; and no logical writing of any real interest was done until Henry Aldrich (1647-1710) published his Artis Logicae Compendium in 1691.

Nihil se habet sanitas, sed tot plane insana est": Valla, xxxvii. ; xxvivo ; and xxxvi. 31 See Vasoli 5. 32 See Vasoli 2. 33 See Vasoli 6. 34 See Vasoli 4. 24 CHAPTER I See Vasoli' . Agricola, De Inventione, 452ff. 37 Agricola, De Inventione, 538ff. e. Aristotle's Analytica Priora, Analytica Posteriora, Topica and De Sophisticis Elenchis. The logica vetus included the Categoriae and De Interpretatione, together with works by Boethius, Porphyry and Apuleius. The logica vetus and the logica nova together are referred to as the logica antiqua when they are contrasted with the logica moderna, or treatises on such non-Aristotelian matters as supposition.

Whether one argued that logic was concerned with utterances or with second intentions; whether one said that the principal second intention was the notion of syllogism, of argumentation, or of demonstration,39 or whether one held such second intentions to be of equal importance, it was still necessary to discuss terms, propositions and the various kinds of argumentation in order to give an adequate account of valid inference. Moreover, since both nominalists and their opponents believed firmly in the existence of three kinds of terms and propositions, mental, spoken and written, of which the mental ones were fundamental, the nominalists found themselves discussing concepts, just as the others found themselves discussing utterances.

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