The Book of Ingenious Devices (Kitāb al-Ḥiyal) by Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, Abū al‐Qāsim Aḥmad

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By Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, Abū al‐Qāsim Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir

The Book of creative Devices (Arabic: كتاب الحيل Kitāb al-Ḥiyal, actually: "The ebook of Tricks") used to be a wide illustrated paintings on mechanical units, together with automata, released in 850 via the 3 Iranian brothers referred to as the Banū Mūsā (Aḥmad, Muḥammad and Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir) operating on the condo of knowledge (Bayt al-Ḥikmah) in Baghdad, Iraq, lower than the Abbasid Caliphate. The e-book defined approximately 100 units and the way to take advantage of them.

Overview
The booklet was once commissioned by way of the Abassid Caliph of Baghdad, Abū Jaʿfar al-Ma'mūn ibn Hārūn (786-833), who urged the Banū Mūsā to obtain all the Hellenistic texts that were preserved via monasteries and through students in the course of the decline and fall of Roman civilization. The Banū Mūsā brothers invented a couple of automata (automatic machines) and mechanical units, they usually defined 100 such units of their Book of creative Devices.
Some of the units defined within the Book of inventive Devices have been encouraged through the works of Hero of Alexandria and Philo of Byzantium, in addition to historical Persian, chinese language and Indian engineering. the various different units defined within the ebook, in spite of the fact that, have been unique innovations via the Banū Mūsā brothers. whereas they took Greek works as a kick off point, the Banū Mūsā went "well past whatever accomplished through Hero or Philo." Their preoccupation with computerized controls distinguishes them from their Greek predecessors, together with the Banū Mūsā's "use of self-operating valves, timing units, hold up platforms and different suggestions of significant ingenuity." lots of their suggestions concerned sophisticated mixtures of pneumatics and aerostatics. the nearest glossy parallel to their paintings lies up to speed engineering and pneumatic instrumentation.
In flip, the Banū Mūsā's paintings was once later mentioned as a power at the paintings of al-Jazarī, who produced a equally titled booklet in 1206. on condition that the Book of creative Devices was once largely circulated around the Muslim global, a few of its principles could have additionally reached Europe via Islamic Spain, akin to using computerized controls in later ecu machines or using conical valves within the paintings of Leonardo da Vinci.

Mechanisms and components
Automatic controls
The Banū Mūsā brothers defined a few early computerized controls. Two-step point controls for fluids, an early kind of discontinuous variable constitution controls, was once constructed via the Banū Mūsā brothers. additionally they defined an early suggestions controller. Donald R. Hill wrote the next at the computerized controls underlying the mechanical trick units defined within the book:
"The trick vessels have quite a few assorted results. for instance, a unmarried outlet pipe in a vessel may perhaps pour out first wine, then water and at last a mix of the 2. even though it can't be claimed that the consequences are vital, the capability through which they have been bought are of serious value for the background of engineering. The Banū Mūsā have been masters within the exploitation of small diversifications in aerostatic and hydrostatic pressures and in utilizing conical valves as 'in-line' parts in move platforms, the 1st identified use of conical valves as automated controllers."
The Banū Mūsā additionally constructed an early fail-safe method to be used of their trick units, as defined via Hill: "In numerous of those vessels, it is easy to withdraw small amounts of liquid again and again, but when one withdraws a wide volume, no extra extractions are attainable. In glossy phrases, one could name the strategy used to accomplish this outcome a fail-safe system."
Automatic crank
The non-manual crank appears to be like in different of the hydraulic units defined via the Banū Mūsā brothers of their Book of inventive Devices. those instantly operated cranks look in different units, of which include an motion which approximates to that of a crankshaft, waiting for Al-Jazari's invention by means of a number of centuries and its first visual appeal in Europe via over 5 centuries. even if, the automated crank defined through the Banū Mūsā do not need allowed an entire rotation, yet just a small amendment used to be required to transform it to a crankshaft.
Valves
A mechanism constructed through the Banū Mūsā, of specific significance for destiny advancements, was once the conical valve, which used to be utilized in numerous diverse purposes. This comprises utilizing conical valves as "in-line" parts in move platforms, which was once the 1st identified use of conical valves as computerized controllers. a number of the different valves they defined include:
• Plug valve
• flow valve
• Tap
Other mechanisms
The double-concentric siphon and the funnel with bent finish for pouring in several beverages, neither of which look in any prior Greek works, have been additionally unique innovations through the Banū Mūsā brothers. a few of the different mechanisms they defined comprise a go with the flow chamber and an early differential pressure.

Machines and devices
Automatic fountains
The publication describes the development of varied computerized fountains, a facet that used to be mostly overlooked in past Greek treatises on expertise. in a single of those fountains, the "water concerns from the fountainhead within the form of a safeguard, or like a lily-of-the-valley," i.e. "the shapes are discharged alternately—either a sheet of water concave downwards, or a spray." one other fountain "discharges a guard or a unmarried jet," whereas a version of this positive aspects double-action alternation, i.e. has fountainheads, with one discharging a unmarried jet and the opposite a guard, and the 2 alternating time and again. one other version positive aspects one major fountainhead and or extra subsidiary ones, such that once the most one ejects a unmarried jet, the subsidiaries eject shields, with the 2 alternating.
The Banū Mūsā brothers additionally defined the earliest identified wind-powered fountain, that's defined as, "operated by way of wind or water, it discharges a unmarried jet or a lily-of-the-valley." A edition of this fountain includes a worm-and-pinion apparatus, whereas one other edition positive factors double-action alternation. The booklet additionally describes a fountain with variable discharge. The publication additionally describes fountains that modify shapes at intervals.
Mechanical musical machines
The Banū Mūsā invented an early mechanical musical device, as a consequence a hydropowered organ which performed interchangeable cylinders immediately. in keeping with Charles B. Fowler, this "cylinder with raised pins at the floor remained the elemental equipment to provide and reproduce tune robotically until eventually the second one half the 19th century."
The Banū Mūsā additionally invented an automated flute participant that can were the 1st programmable computing device. The flute sounds have been produced via scorching steam and the consumer may possibly regulate the gadget to varied styles so they may perhaps get a number of sounds from it.
Practical tools
The mechanical seize, in particular the clamshell seize, is an unique invention via the Banū Mūsā brothers that doesn't look in any previous Greek works. The seize they defined used to be used to extract gadgets from underwater, and recuperate items from the beds of streams.
The Banū Mūsā additionally invented an early fuel masks, for safeguarding staff in polluted wells. in addition they defined bellows which can eliminate foul air from wells. They defined that those tools permit a employee to "descend into any good he needs for some time and he'll now not worry it, nor will it damage him, if God wills might he be exalted."
Water dispensers
The publication describes a dispenser for warm and chilly water, the place the 2 retailers trade, one discharging chilly water and the opposite sizzling, then vice versa many times. It additionally describes a vessel with a basin by way of its part the place, while chilly water is poured into the pinnacle of the vessel, it discharges from the mouth of a determine into the basin; whilst scorching water or one other liquid is poured into the basin, the same amount of chilly water is discharged from the mouth of the figure.
The publication additionally describes a boiler with a faucet to entry scorching water. The water is heated via chilly water being poured right into a pipe which ends up in a tank on the backside of the boiler, the place the water is heated with fireplace. an individual can then entry scorching water from the boiler via a tap.
Other devices
Some of the opposite units the Banū Mūsā defined of their booklet include:
• Mechanical trick devices
• typhoon lamp
• Self-trimming lamp (by Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir)
• Self-feeding lamp

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Extra info for The Book of Ingenious Devices (Kitāb al-Ḥiyal)

Example text

This is a concentric siphon; pipe (a-a:) was probably joined to pipe (bd) by copper wires soldered to each pipe. Pipe (bd) passes through the floor of container (f), the joint being air-tight. When liquid is poured into the container it rises to point (b), the discharge of the first drop of water reduces the air pressure in space (ab) sufficiently to cause a continuous flow through pipe (bd) until the liquid level reaches (ee). This siphon is very similar to those used in lavatory cisterns, except that in the latter case the partial vacuum is caused by the sudden raising of the bell covering the downpipe.

Uses a similar system and acknowledges his debt to "Archimedes" (p. 17). , in this encyclopaedia of the sciences entitled the Keys of the Sciences (Mafätib al-'Ulum) gives the following description of this component: 'The ground valve (bäb matbün) has a male and a female - the male enters the female; it opens and closes. When it is closed it is tight-fitting and has no outle!. Most ofthem are eone-shaped" (p. 253f). AI-JazarI tells us that they were made of east bronze, and that the plug was ground into the seat with emery.

This is a concentric siphon; pipe (a-a:) was probably joined to pipe (bd) by copper wires soldered to each pipe. Pipe (bd) passes through the floor of container (f), the joint being air-tight. When liquid is poured into the container it rises to point (b), the discharge of the first drop of water reduces the air pressure in space (ab) sufficiently to cause a continuous flow through pipe (bd) until the liquid level reaches (ee). This siphon is very similar to those used in lavatory cisterns, except that in the latter case the partial vacuum is caused by the sudden raising of the bell covering the downpipe.

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