By Ronald Munson, Andrew Black
The weather OF REASONING is a concise and lucid advent to the elemental parts of argumentative prose and the conceptual instruments essential to comprehend, study, criticize, and build arguments. this article is not just ideal for a school path in argument research, but in addition as a reference device while faced with arguments open air the study room event. whereas the weather OF REASONING covers the traditional formal instruments of introductory common sense, its emphasis is on functional functions to the categories of arguments scholars quite often come upon.
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Extra info for The Elements of Reasoning
Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. EVALUATING ARGUMENTS 39 plausibility argument. We can, however, adopt a variant of an evaluative strategy we employed for assessing the validity of deductive arguments. This is the method of thought experiments. A plausibility argument, like any other nondeductive argument, is meant to make its conclusion at least more likely than not, given the premises. (“His jacket was covered with blood, and he can’t explain why.
So the truth of the premises does not guarantee the truth of the conclusion, and the argument is not valid. Consider a slightly more difficult example: All the relatives of the deceased were at the funeral. So there’s no denying everyone at the funeral was a relative of the deceased. Suppose the deceased had exactly five relatives, and they were all at the funeral. Suppose, too, that several unrelated friends of the deceased were also present. Under these circumstances, the premises are true and the conclusion false, and so this argument is also invalid.
Identify Any Replies to Objections. Subarguments that counter objections to the central argument often play an important role in supporting a conclusion. For example, in the course of arguing that addictive drugs should be legalized, someone might attempt to reply to the obvious objection that legalization would increase the number of addicts. Such a reply indirectly supports the main conclusion by removing an objection that stands in the way of accepting either the main conclusion or an intermediate one.